It has been demonstrated that ectotherms (such as insects and reptiles) in warm climates tolerate higher temperatures than ectotherms in cooler climates. angilletta hypothesized that urban heat islands could lead to similar differences in heat tolerance between urban and rural populations of leaf-cutter ants. he predicted that ants in urban areas would tolerate heat better than ants in nearby rural areas. select the two best experimental designs for comparing the thermal tolerance of ants in urban areas to ants in nearby rural areas.


* Measure the heat tolerance of many ants of the same species as a function of the distance they live from a city center.

* Measure the heat tolerance of many ants of the same species from a city center and from a rural area in the same region.


Ectotherm are also regarded as cold-blooded animals. These are the animals whose regulation of body temperature depends on external sources, such as sunlight or a heated rock surface.

This means that their body temperature rises and falls along with the temperature of the surrounding environment.

The examples of ectotherm include the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates.

In this case, to actually confirm that the ants in the urban area will tolerate more heat better than the ants in nearby rural areas, the two experimental designs mentioned above should be adopted.

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